Summary – a brief characteristic of a scientific article, taking into account its purpose, content, type, form and other features. It is written after the main article is written. The purpose of the summary is to familiarize the reader with the content of the article. This is especially true for a summary of a foreign language: a summary for an English-speaking reader – the only way to find out the content of an article in English. If the reader is interested in the summary, he can request a full-text translation, etc. Thus, the author is interested in making the summary meaningful and informative. It should be stressed at once that the summary is a characteristic rather than a content statement. Negative evaluation of the content of the sources.
The summary performs the following functions:
It allows you to find out the main content of a scientific article, to determine its relevance, and to decide whether the whole article should be addressed; used in information and automated search engines.
The summary should cover the characteristics of the main topic, the problems of the scientific articles, the objectives of the work and its results. The summary indicates what is new in this article compared to others similar to the theme and purpose.
Main characteristics of the summary:
- language quality;
Traditional shortcomings in author summaries – incompletely reflect the content of the article and use too many phrases. Common phrases, irrelevant elements are often used, which contradicts the basic principle of summarizing – informativeness. The other extreme is too short teaching, lack of basic information.
The first thing to keep in mind is that the summary is a short description of the work, not a statement. In order not to miss the main elements of the article, a clear structure should be followed.
The structure of the summary is similar to the structure of the scientific article and includes the following key elements:
- goal setting;
- description of the research object;
- solving the problem;
- methodology and practical significance.
The easiest way to compile a summary is based on four universal questions: “What?”, “What?”, “To”? In the summary, you have to explain what the author is and what his / her professional qualification is, what the job is, what its content is, to whom it can be interesting or useful. In the summary of the research article, describe the main idea in this paper.
The main difference from the article is that each of these parts has 1-2 sentences. In English summaries, three parts are usually distinguished: the first part is intended to describe the relevance and formulate the tasks; second, to describe the decisions (if it is an experiment, then describe the methodology and results); third – conclusions and practical significance. Scope of the summary – usually 1000-1700 characters (with spaces). Scientific journals and conference organizing committees set their own standards. Recently, there have been extended summaries for scientific conferences: up to two pages! This is explained by the fact that the editors want to better understand the content in order to choose the best works. In addition, it is related to Internet coverage, it allows you to send large amounts of information. There are short and very short summaries with little benefit.
Suggestions for teaching style
First, the summary is a scientific functional style with strict requirements. Secondly, note that works written in a scientific functional style are never written by the first person. Third, the structure of the summary is very strict. The summary language should be as simple and understandable as possible for different professionals. The summary recommends avoiding special terms, abbreviations and symbols. The syntax structure of the summary should be as simple as possible. It is best to use short sentences, divide the text into paragraphs (usually 2-3 paragraphs).
Because the summary is a standard structure, it is possible to use a scientific language: the article reviews / analyzes / summarizes / analyzes; shown / received / offered. When writing a summary, pay special attention to your writing style. Try to avoid long and complicated sentences, the summary must be brief, meaningful, written in an understandable style, in a modern common language. Your thoughts should be brief and clear, as it is easy to read and understand the teaching style. At the moment, in your own words, without using quotes and the words of the original text.
It is recommended to avoid private details and specific digits. The resulting digital values are usually not the result of the work, so they are not required in the summary.
Time and time are used. Usually the summary is written in time, because the work has already been done. At the author’s request, it is possible to use the current time, but then it must be the same in all sentences. The same holds true for the rest. Usually used phrases “reviewed problems”, “proven”, etc. The sentence must be the same in all sentences.
The introduction should contain a topic, the sources you used. It should list the criteria on which these sources will be compared.
Justify your selection criteria. Remember that the criteria, arguments and evaluations must be objective.
The main part
Here you evaluate the sources strictly according to the criteria you specified. Your speeches should be convincing, accurate and concise.
Finally, you conclude on which of the investigated sources is the most suitable for use. Note that you can use them for a variety of purposes.
So the summary is a small-scale text from which the authors want to be clear.
The English summary is usually written according to the same rules.
What do readers want to know from the summary?
What is being studied? The reader wants to understand the purpose and results of the work (achievements). First of all, he wants to get acquainted with the object of the research (physical phenomenon, experimental determination or problem), its parameters, characteristics. It is necessary to present to the reader what physical system you are working with and what its main elements are.
Have you reviewed the theory? The theoretical part (the “intelligent part”) is designed to explain to the reader what you are presenting the physical phenomena, as well as the reasonableness of the actions needed to solve the problem or task.
Main results. What did the authors identify during the research? This part is the same as the Conclusion, but it may be longer there. “Conclusions” are part of the work and must be fully understood by reading the whole work.
What did you find interesting in research? What unusual effects have you seen? Maybe you weren’t looking at it, but it was something you just couldn’t keep silent, which might be dealt with in later studies.
Methodology of investigation. The reader wants to know how you got such wonderful results. The methodology usually relies on trust in the data received. It is therefore necessary to briefly describe the method of analysis.
Measurement error. This is important because the reader is always interested in: “Does the result fall outside the measurement error limits? “
A good summary always contains numerical values. It can be concluded that, in the absence of numerical data, there are no summaries. Such a summary is always unclear. The reader does not understand: “What has been done? What’s new?”. Only numerical values decorate the work and allow the physicist to understand it. At the end of the summary, it is useful to indicate which professionals may be interested in your work, and which areas of knowledge work.
The job title must be specific. The name should be clear about what is being researched and what exactly you are interested in. The name reader must understand whether it is worth reading.
What steps will help you write a good summary?
- Submit the key facts and actions in the beginning with keywords. They will help you to understand the content of the text you have read and to understand what details may not be mentioned.
- Content delivery is done chronologically and oriented to the sequence of actions, if the text refers to the past and moves in time, the content must be in chronological order.
The summary can be written according to the following plan: topicality of the topic / research, innovativeness, research problem, object, goal, tasks, research methodology, concrete research results, conclusions (most important evaluations, recommendations), areas of use of results. When writing a summary, it is appropriate to refer to the information in the introduction.